ISA was crafted to meet all U.S. objections during initial negotiations
[ Page 76-77 ]
From the perspective of the United States, the regime for deep seabed minerals is a success. Reduced greatly in size, scope and autonomy from the proposals of the NEIO, the authority provides the exclusive right to explore, develop and exploit mineral deposits of the deep seabed and to obtain clear title to the recovered minerals; the Authority is a defined and constrained regulatory regime that provides predictability and comparability with the land-based regimes of national governments. This was the objective of the United States from the beginning of the UNCLOS process and it was achieved through persistence during periods of market ups and downs, the development of the non-aligned movement and the NIEO, and the introduction of democracy and market economies into the eastern socialist bloc. Perhaps more importantly, beyond the confines of the deep seabed, the decision-making structure of the Authority provides a demonstration of an alternative decision-making process in international organizations based on consensus and chambered voting, changing the balance from the "one nation, one vote" and "majority rules" methods of groups such as the UN General Assembly.